|Pakistan emerged on the world map as
an independent sovereign state in August 1947, as a result of the division
of the British Indian Empire. With a land area of 796,095 sq. km.
[including FATA (Federal Administered Tribal Areas) and FANA (Federal
Administered Northern Areas)], its population stands at nearly 130.60
million, according to the 1998 Census. Historically, this is one of the
most ancient lands known to man. Its cities flourished before Babylon was
built; its people practiced the art of good living and citizenship before
the celebrated ancient Greeks.
The region traces its history back to at least 2,500 years before Christ,
when a highly developed civilization flourished in the Indus Valley.
Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kot Diji have brought to light
evidence of an advanced civilization flourishing here even in most ancient
times. Around 1,500 B.C. the Aryans conquered this region and slowly
pushed the Hindu inhabitants further east, towards the Ganges Valley.
Later, the Persians occupied the northern regions in 5th century B.C. The
Greeks came in 327 B.C., under Alexander of Macedonia, and ran through the
region like a meteor. In 712 A.D. the Arabs, led by Mohammed Bin Qasim,
landed somewhere near what is now Karachi, and ruled the lower half of
Pakistan for two hundred years. During this time Islam took root and
influenced the life, culture and traditions of the inhabitants of the
From 10th century A.D. onwards, a systematic conquest of Indo-Pakistan by
the Muslims from Central Asia began and lasted up to 18th century A.D.,
when the British colonized the Sub-continent and ruled for nearly 200
years (for 100 years over what is now Pakistan). The Muslim revival began
towards the end of the last century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a renowned
leader and educationist, launched a movement for intellectual renaissance
of the Indian Muslims. In 1930, the well-known poet/philosopher, Dr.
Mohammed Iqbal conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of
the Sub-continent, and in 1940, the All-India Muslim League adopted the
famous Pakistan Resolution.
After seven years of untiring struggle, under the brilliant leadership of
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the world map as a
sovereign state on August 14, 1947, when the British Indian Empire was
partitioned into two independent states - India and Pakistan.