Convulsions are upsetting but don't normally cause long-term harm.
What are they?
In children, seizures (sometimes called fits or convulsions) are usually caused by raised body temperature.
These include obvious signs of fever, such as hot, flushed skin, sudden loss of consciousness, convulsive movements, such as jaw clenches, and the body becoming rigid.
First aid aims
Treat casualty for unconsciousness
Protect casualty while unconscious
Arrange for medical help where necessary
Actions - minor fit
Sit casualty down, reassure them and remove any dangerous objects from around them
Actions - major fit
Try to break any fall but don't restrain casualty
Clear any dangerous objects from around them
Loosen clothing where possible and protect their head
When the convulsions are over, ensure the person's airway is open and check their breathing.
Place the person in the recovery position.
Sponge their skin with tepid water to help keep them cool.
What is it?
Abnormal fluctuations in blood sugar can lead to someone with diabetes becoming unwell and, if untreated, losing consciousness.
There are two conditions associated with diabetes - hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) and hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar).
A first aider is most likely to encounter hypoglycaemia, which affects brain function and can lead to unconsciousness if untreated.
Signs and symptoms
Feeling 'weak' and confused
Dry, pale skin
Rapid, weak pulse
First aid aims
Raise blood sugar level as quickly as possible
Get casualty to hospital, if necessary
Get casualty to hospital as soon as possible
Sit casualty down
Offer casualty food or a sweet drink
If there's an improvement, offer more to eat or drink
Keep casualty resting
Call 999 immediately
If the casualty loses consciousness
Open airway and check breathing
Place them in recovery position
Prepare to give resuscitation