Small scalds and burns can be treated by a first aider, but often medical attention is needed.
What are they? Burns are caused by dry heat and scalds are caused by wet heat.
Both burns and scalds damage the body by removing the layer of skin that protects the body from infection.
Symptoms Extreme pain Shock, depending on severity of burn Swelling around site of burn Redness and blistering Charred skin on a very deep burn
First aid aims Halt the burning Alleviate pain Minimise risk of infection
Actions Stop the burning by applying running cold water to site of burn for at least ten minutes Cover wound using a clean pad or cling film to prevent infection Remove any jewellery near burn site Treat for shock
Further action Unless the wound is superficial, call 999.
Minor cuts and grazes
Most cuts and grazes can be treated by a first aider.
Cleaning the wound Wash wound gently with water and mild soap Remove any debris and dirt Press clean pad on wound to halt bleeding Cover with sterile adhesive bandage Inspect regularly and remove bandage when a scab has formed
When to seek medical advice See a doctor if:
You're unable to clean all the dirt from the wound The cut is more than 1cm long, or is deep
Further action Get help if:
Bleeding persists Casualty shows symptoms of shock
Further information See bleeding for information on how to treat more serious injuries.