Broken bones always need professional attention, but there's action you can take immediately to help the casualty.
Because children tend to put their arms out as they fall, arms, elbows and wrists are where breaks tend to occur.
Inability to use the limb
Bruising or deformity at site of the break
Actions - broken arm
Sit child down
Ask them to support injured arm with other hand
Put a pad between arm and chest
Put injured arm in a sling
Place a broad-fold bandage over sling and around arm and chest
Take child to hospital
Actions - broken leg
Lay child down and support leg at ankle and knee joints - by hand if an ambulance is expected soon, or on a chair if not
Steady injured leg with padding
Put rolled-up blankets outside injured limb and between legs
Keep child warm
What is it?
Cramp is typically caused by fatigue or strain, for example when exercising. It's a painful, involuntary muscle contraction, which usually occurs in the legs and feet.
First aid aims
Relieve pain and discomfort
For cramp in the foot, massage the foot
For cramp in the lower leg, straighten the leg and massage the muscles while pulling the foot upwards towards the shin
For cramp in the upper leg, straighten the casualty's leg and massage the affected muscle until the pain passes.