Anaphylaxis is an extreme allergic reaction, which can be fatal and must be taken extremely seriously. First aid can help, but a child having an anaphylactic reaction also needs medical attention.
What is it?
Anaphylaxis is an extreme allergic reaction to certain foods, drugs or animal stings, which results in rapid chemical changes in the body.
Blood vessels dilate, producing red, blotchy skin
Air passages become constricted, resulting in breathing difficulties
Face and neck may swell
Pulse may race
There may be puffiness around the eyes
Casualty may wheeze and gasp for air
First aid aims
Get emergency help
Be prepared to resuscitate
Give the child as much calm reassurance as you can
Put child in a position that helps to alleviate breathing difficulties
Loosen any tight clothing
If child is carrying medication, help them to use it
If the child loses consciousness
Lie them down
Prepare to start resuscitation
Place them in recovery position
While it's rare for people in the UK to be seriously injured by an animal or snake bite, it's important the casualty gets first aid and medical attention.
Snake bite - symptoms
These may include puncture marks, pain, swelling, vomiting and disturbed vision.
Snake bite - actions
Lie casualty down and keep them still and quiet
Keep heart higher than level of bite
Wash bite area with soap and water, and cover with sterile dressing
Secure and support limb
Try to identify type of snake to inform medical team
Animal bites - cleaning the wound
Wash superficial bites with soap and water
Pat wound dry and cover with adhesive dressing
For more serious bites, apply pressure to the wound
Animal bites - further actions
Lift and support bitten limb above level of the casualty's heart
Cover wound with sterile dressing
Take or send casualty to hospital